William Ouchi: Theory Z of Leadership

Theory Z is based on the Japanese leadership style in which humanism and the trust of workers with their superiors are decisive aspects. According to Professor William Ouchi, good relationships are key to productivity.
William Ouchi: Theory Z of Leadership

Written by Valeria Sabater

Last update: 03 October, 2022

Professor William Ouchi coined the Z theory of leadership in the 1980s. It coincided with the economic boom of many Asian companies. He wanted to emphasize the need to create a new company culture in which the employee feels fulfilled in the organization.

His idea revolved around good relations between the workers and the higher classes. It basically meant creating another type of philosophy in which managers were participants in work dynamics. Working on the same goals and developing adequate training and promotion mechanisms were some of its defining elements.

Today, companies like IBM, Procter & Gamble, and Hewlett-Packard are Z-organizations. The policies that define them are extremely different from the rest of the business market. They’re work environments in which employees feel integrated and motivated. Furthermore, there are really positive links between the entire human team that makes up these organizations.

Theory Z promotes teamwork, trust, and collective decision-making. This increases a company’s productivity and its employees feel more satisfied and motivated.

Group symbolizing the Z theory of leadership
In theory Z, the leader must know and adapt to each individual employee. Understanding that not all people are the same is a priority.

The Z theory of leadership

The first thing that tends to draw attention to the Z theory of leadership is the letter Z itself. There’s an explanation behind this fact. In 1983, Professor William Ouchi published a comparative study of American and Japanese management practices. He wanted to go a little further than the contributions already made by businessman, Douglas McGregor in the 1940s.

McGregor was a key figure in human resource management. He coined Theories X and Y to define the two most common types of organization. In Theory X it’s assumed that the employee is pessimistic and shows an innate aversion to work. On the other hand, Theory Y considers the worker as the most important asset of the company.

William Ouchi established Theory Z to emphasize the idea that the quality of a company is defined by its humanism in treating the employee. A good leader must promote permanent jobs and a philosophy that guarantees the well-being and motivation of the worker. This requires taking care of and working on a series of specific aspects. Let’s take a look at them

The key to the success of the key to the Japanese method, according to Professor Ouchi, was the relationship that existed between bosses and employees.

Collective decision making

As far as possible, all the figures of an organization should be involved when making important decisions. Therefore, the classic company structure in which the manager and directors are at the top, holding power, changes. Communication mechanisms are established so that a good part of the actions and changes are agreed upon.

Continuous training

The company is in charge of providing continuous training to everyone (employees and managers included). The aim is to improve the innate talent of each figure. This constant training mechanism is a priority element of Theory Z.

Stable and long-term employment

Every employee has the perception and reassurance that their work is decisive. For this to happen, their contracts must be fixed. It’s the only way they can develop a genuine commitment to the organization.

Job rotation

This element is extremely practical. In fact, the Z theory of leadership establishes that each worker must have the opportunity to discover and be trained in all the tasks of the company. Consequently, they have a broader awareness of how their work environment works. In addition, they gain valuable skills.

Job rotation is a really common variable in this type of philosophy.

The importance of reconciliation

By the 1980s, Professor William Ouchi had already highlighted the relevance of dealing with family and work reconciliation. He claimed that companies are obliged to facilitate measures and strategies so that each employee can meet their own particular needs. Adjusting schedules, offering permits, and attending to each particularity are essential.

The employee must feel linked to the environment and the purposes of the company. Furthermore, they must feel included and highly motivated. Only then will they be able to give meaning to their existence through their work.

Interpersonal trust

As we mentioned earlier, an essential pillar of the Z theory of leadership is to promote coexistence, respect, and trust among all members of a work setting. Humanism is understood as the ability to create healthy and harmonious relationships.

However, William Ouchi insisted on the need for these links to go beyond the merely formal. For this reason, he proposed organizing dynamics outside of working time, such as sports and leisure events, etc.

Getting to know the employees

A good leader must know how to address each worker. This doesn’t simply mean knowing their names. In fact, they must understand what each employee is like and find out about their background as well as any particular needs and frustrations they might have. By making contact with the personal universe of each employee, bosses don’t only improve their situation, but can also identify any deficiencies in the company and enhance the employee’s commitment to it.

Managers and employees must be committed and motivated in order to meet the same objectives.

An inspiring theory

William Ouchi and his Theory Z sought to shape a workforce that’s highly engaged and loyal to the company. He insisted that if the right business conditions and philosophy are created, the workers will always give the best of themselves. They’ll also tend to remain in the organization all their lives.

As you can probably imagine, these precepts are difficult to fulfill and develop in the 21st century. Indeed, in such a fluid and unstable labor market, it isn’t easy for an employee to wholeheartedly commit to a company in mind, body, and spirit. Nevertheless, although in practice this approach isn’t always fulfilled, the theory is both popular and inspiring.

Many North American companies follow the Z theory and are well-positioned in the market. It suggests the need for many policies and mindsets to be reconsidered.

It might interest you...
The Importance of a Healthy Work-Life Balance
Exploring your mind
Read it in Exploring your mind
The Importance of a Healthy Work-Life Balance

A healthy work-life balance means having a healthy equilibrium between work and leisure time. It's essential for long-term good health.



  • Ouchi, William (1981) Teoria Z. como pueden las empresas hacer frente al desafío japonés. Alianza
  • Ouchi, William (2009) The Secret of TSL: The Revolutionary Discovery That Raises School Performance. ‎ Simon & Schuster
  • Ouchi, William & Price, Raymond. (1993). Hierarchies, clans, and Theory Z: A new perspective on organization development.. Organizational Dynamics. 21. 25-44. 10.1016/0090-2616(78)90036-0.